Thymosin-β4 FRAGMENT 1-15 10 mg (Without Mannitol)

$60.00
Product Usage: This PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY. This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. All product information available on this website is for educational purposes only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law. This product should only be handled by licensed, qualified professionals. This product is not a drug, food, or cosmetic and may not be misbranded, misused or mislabeled as a drug, food, or cosmetic.
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Tβ4, consisting of 43 amino acids, exhibits biological activity determined by specific gene fragments it encodes. Its segments comprising amino acids 1–15 have been observed to hinder apoptosis and mitigate cellular damage induced by toxicity.

Tβ4’s influence on apoptosis manifests in various contexts: it mitigates tubular epithelial cell apoptosis by hindering the TGF-β pathway in SD rats with chronic renal tubular interstitial fibrosis. This peptide also demonstrates preventive effects on nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis, decreases cellular aging, and stimulates cell proliferation. Additionally, Tβ4 intervenes in preventing apoptosis in different cell types like EPCs, human corneal epithelial cells exposed to ethanol, and cortical neurons experiencing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Its actions involve modulation of various proteins linked to apoptosis, such as caspases, GRP78, C/EBP homologous protein, Bax, Bcl-2, and autophagy-related proteins. Tβ4’s role extends to influencing miRNA expression, notably upregulating miR-200a, which consequently downregulates p53 and reduces apoptosis in progenitor cells undergoing oxygen glucose deprivation.